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Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
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Marbled Orb Weaver Araneus marmoreus (KD photo)_Araneus marmoreus (KDarrow photo)

Jonathan A. Coddington, Curator of Arachnids & Myriapods

  • Phone:   202-633-1056
  • Fax:   202-786-3141
  • E-mail Address:   coddington@si.edu
  • Mailing Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    PO Box 37012, MRC 105, Rm. E-529
    Washington, DC 20013-7012
  • Shipping Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    National Museum of Natural History
    10th & Constitution NW
    Washington, DC 20560-0105
  • Education:
    1975 B.S. Yale University
    1978 M.A. Harvard University
    1984 PhD. Harvard University
Jonathan Coddington with tarantula

Research Interests:

My research spans three broad topics: the systematics and evolution of spiders, especially orbweavers; issues in systematic theory and method; and, most recently, the theory and design of biological inventories. Research on spider systematics has been directed at producing and synthesizing a first estimate of the higher phylogeny of spiders (e.g. "families"), especially orb-weaving spiders and their relatives. The resulting cladograms have been applied to empirical and theoretical studies of adaptation, behavior, evolution of web architecture, silk glands and spinneret spigot morphology,male genitalia, sexual size dimorphism, and patterns of species richness in spiders. I am interested in how adaptational hypotheses are developed and tested, as well as criteria for cladistic support. Finally, as a museum scientist, it seems appropriate to focus on design and evaluation of rapid, efficient, quantitative sampling protocols to better understand the structure and distribution of biodiversity.


Publications:

Davies, Neil, Field, Dawn, Amaral-Zettler, Linda, Clark, Melody S., Deck, John, Drummond, Alexei, Faith, Daniel P., Geller, Jonathan, Gilbert, Jack, Glöckner, Frank Oliver, Hirsch, Penny, Leong, Jo-Ann, Meyer, Chris, Obst, Matthias, Planes, Serge, Scholin, Chris, Vogler, Alfried P., Gates, Ruth D., Toonen, Robert J., Berteaux-Lecellier, V., Barbier, Michèle, Barker, Katherine, Bertilsson, Stefan, Bicak, Mesude, Bietz, Matthew J., et al. 2014. The founding charter of the Genomic Observatories Network. Gigascience, 3(1) doi:10.1186/2047-217X-3-2

Evans, J.D., Brown, S.J., Hackett, K.J., Robinson, G., Richards, S., Lawson, D., Elsik, C., Coddington, J., Edwards, O., Emrich, S., Gabaldon, T., Goldsmith, M., Hanes, G., Misof, B., Muñoz-Torres, M., Niehuis, O., Papanicolaou, A., Pfrender, M., Poelchau, M., Purcell-Miramontes, M., Robertson, H.M., Ryder, O., Tagu, D., Torres, T., Zdobnov, E., et al2013. The i5K Initiative: advancing arthropod genomics for knowledge, human health, agriculture, and the environment. The Journal of Heredity, 104(5): 595-600. doi:10.1093/jhered/est050

Agnarsson, Ingi, Coddington, Jonathan A. and Kuntner, Matjaz. 2013. Systematics: progress in the study of spider diversity and evolution. In: Penney, David, Spider Research in the 21st Century: Trends and Perspectives. Siri Scientific Press, pp.58-111.

Coddington, J.A., Kuntner, M. and Opell, B.D. 2012. Systematics of the Spider Family Deinopidae with a Revision of the Genus Menneus. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 636: 1-61. doi:10.5479/si.00810282.636.1

Wheeler, Q., Bourgoin, T., Coddington, J., Gostony, T., Hamilton, A., Larimer, R., Polaszek, A., Schauff, M., and Solis, M. A. 2012. Nomenclatural benchmarking: the roles of digital typification and telemicroscopy. ZooKeys 209: 193–202.

Cardoso, P., Pekár, S., Jocqué, R. and Coddington, J. A. 2011. Global Patterns of Guild Composition and Functional Diversity of Spiders. PLoS ONE, 6(6): 1-10. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021710

Higgins, L., Coddington, J., Goodnight, C. and Kuntner, M. 2011. Testing ecological and developmental hypotheses of mean and variation in adult size in nephilid orb-weaving spiders. Evolutionary Ecology, 25(6): 1289-1306. doi:10.1007/s10682-011-9475-9

Pekár, S., Coddington, J. A. and Blackledge, T. A. 2011. Evolution of Stenophagy in Spiders (araneae): Evidence Based on the Comparative Analysis of Spider Diets. Evolution, 66(3): 776-806. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01471.x

Agnarsson, I., Kuntner, M., Coddington, J.A. and Blackledge, T.A. 2010. Shifting continents, not behaviours: independent colonization of solitary and subsocial Anelosimus spider lineages on Madagascar (Araneae, Theridiidae). Zoologica Scripta, 39(1): 75-87. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2009.00406.x

Ramirez, M.J., Maddison, W. and Coddington, J.A. 2010. Use of ontologies to document characters. Cladistics, 26(2): 223

Blackledge, T.A., Coddington, J.A. and Agnarsson, I. 2009. Fecundity increase supports adaptive radiation hypothesis in spider web evolution. Communicative & Integrative Biology, 2(6): 1-5.

Blackledge, T.A., Scharff, N., Coddington, J.A., Szüts, T., Wenzel, J.W., Hayashi, C.Y. and Agnarsson, I. 2009. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(13): 5229-5234.

Coddington, J.A., Agnarsson, I., Miller, J.A., Kuntner, M. and Hormiga, G. 2009. Undersampling bias: the null hypothesis for singleton species in tropical arthropod surveys. Journal of Animal Ecology, 78(3): 573-584. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2009.01525.x

Coscaron, M. C., Melo, M. C., Coddington, J.A. and Corronca, J. 2009. Estimating biodiversity: a case study on true bugs in argentinian wetlands. Biodiversity and Conservation, 18(6): 1491-1507. doi:10.1007/s10531-008-9515-0

Kuntner, M., and J.A. Coddington (2009) Discovery of the Largest orbweaving Spider Species: The Evolution of Gigantism in Nephila. PLoS ONE 4(10): e7516.

Kuntner, M., J.A. Coddington and J.M. Schneider. 2009. Intersexual arms race? Genital coevolution in nephilid spiders (Araneae, Nephilidae). Evolution 63(6): 1451-1463.

Stork, N.E., Coddington, J.A., Colwell, R.K., Chazdon, R.L., Dick, C.W., Peres, C.A., Sloan, S. and Willis, K. 2009. Vulnerability and Resilience of Tropical Forest Species to Land-Use Change. Conservation Biology, 23(6): 1438-1447.

Agnarsson, I. and Coddington, J.A. 2008. Quantitative tests of primary homology. Cladistics, 24(1): 51-61.

Kuntner, M., Coddington, J.A. and Hormiga, G. 2008. Phylogeny of extant nephilid orb-weaving spiders (Araneae, Nephilidae): testing morphological and ethological homologies. Cladistics, 24(2): 147-217.

Agnarsson, I., Coddington, J.A. and May-Collado, L.J. 2007. Elongated pedicillate setae: A putative sensory system and synapomorphy of spiders. Journal of Arachnology, 35(3): 411-426.

Agnarsson, Ingi, Coddington, Jonathan A. and Knoflach, Barbara. 2007. Morphology and evolution of cobweb spider male genitalia (Araneae: Theridiidae). Journal of Arachnology, 35: 334-395
.

Coddington, J.A. and I. Agnarsson. 2007. Subsociality in Helvibis thorelli Keyserling, 1884 (Araneae, Theridiidae, Theridiinae) from French Guiana. Journal of Arachnology, : 642-645.

Ramirez, M.J., Coddington, J.A., Maddison, W.P., Midford, P.E., Prendini, L., Miller, J., Griswold, C.E., Hormiga, G., Sierwald, P. and Scharff, N. 2007. Linking of Digital Images to Phylogenetic Data Matrices Using a Morphological Ontology. Syst.Biol, 56(2): 283-294.

Rowley, D.L., Coddington, J.A., Gates, M.W., Norrbom, R.A., Ochoa, R.A., Vandenberg, N.J. and Greenstone, M.H. 2007. Vouchering DNA-barcoded specimens: test of a nondestructive extraction protocol for terrestrial arthropods. Molecular Ecology Notes, 7: 915-924.

Agnarsson, I. and Coddington, J.A. 2006. Notes on web and web plasticity and description of the male of Achaearanea heiroglyphica (Mello-LeitÆo)(Theridiidae, Araneae). Journal of Arachnology, 34: 638-641.

Agnarsson, I., Aviles, L., Coddington, J.A. and Maddison, W.P. 2006. Sociality in theridiid spiders: repeated origins of an evolutionary dead end. Evolution 60(11): 2342-51.

Coddington, J.A. 2005. Deinopidae. In: Ubick, D., Cushing, P.E. and Paquin, P., Spiders of North America: an Identification Manual. American Arachnology Society, pp.64-65.

Coddington, J.A. 2005. Phylogeny and Classification of Spiders. In: Ubick, D., Cushing, P.E. and Paquin, P., Spiders of North America: an Identification Manual. American Arachnology Society, pp.18-24.

Coddington, J.A. 2005. Symphytognathidae. In: Ubick, D., Cushing, P.E. and Paquin, P., Spiders of North America: an Identification Manual. American Arachnology Society, pp.226-227.

Coddington, J.A. 2005. Theridiosomatidae. In: Ubick, D., Cushing, P.E. and Paquin, P., Spiders of North America: an Identification Manual. American Arachnology Society, pp.244-245.

Coddington, J.A. 2005. Anapidae. In: Ubick, D., Cushing, P.E. and Paquin, P., Spiders of North America: an Identification Manual. American Arachnology Society, pp.64-65.

Lopardo, L. and Coddington, J.A. 2005. Mysmenidae. In: Ubick, D., Cushing, P.E. and Paquin, P., Spiders of North America: an Identification Manual. American Arachnology Society, pp.175-177.

Arnedo, M.A., Coddington, J.A., Agnarsson, I. and Gillespie, R.G. 2004. From a Comb to a Tree: Phylogenetic Relationships of the Comb-footed Spiders (Araneae, Theridiidae) Inferred from Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 31: 225-245.

Coddington, J.A., Giribet, G., Harvey, M.S., Prendini, L. and Walter, D.E. 2004. Arachnida. In: Cracraft, J. and Donoghue, M.J., Assembling the Tree of Life. Oxford University Press, pp.296-318.

Blackledge, T.A., Coddington, J.A. and Gillespie, R.G. 2003. Are Three-Dimensional Spider Webs Defensive Adaptations?. Ecology Letters, 6(1): 13-18.

Coddington, J.A. 2003. Book review: Joachim Adis, ed., Amazonian Arachnida and Myriapoda. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 38(3): 251-252.

Scharff, N., Coddington, J.A., Griswold, C.E., Hormiga, G. and Place Bjorn, P.d. 2003. When to Quit? Esitmating Spider Species Richness in a Northern European Deciduous Forest. Journal of Arachnology, 31: 210-246.

Coddington, J.A., Chanzy, H.D., Jackson, C.L., Ray, G. and Gardner, K.H. 2002. The Unique Ribbon Morphology of the Major Ampullate Silk of Spiders from the Genus Loxosceles (recluse spiders). Biomacromolecules, 3(1-2): 5-8.

Longino, J.I., Coddington, J.A. and Colwell, R.K. 2002. The Ant Fauna of a Tropical Rainforest: Estimating Species Richness Three Different Ways. Ecology, 83(3): 689-702.

Sorensen, L.L., Coddington, J.A., Griswold, C.E., Hormiga, G. and Place Bjorn, P.d. 2002. Inventorying and Estimating Sub-Canopy Spider Diversity using Semi-Quantitative Sampling Methods in an Afromontane Forest. Environmental Entomology, 31(2): 319-330.

Hormiga, G. and Coddington, J.A. 2001. Patrones Filogeneticos de Dimorfismo Sexual de Tamano en Las Aranas Tejedoras de Telas Orbiculares (Araneae, Orbiculariae). In: Enfoques Contimporaneos para el Studio de la Biodiversidadpp.149-168.

Coddington, J.A. and Colwell, R.K. 2000. Arachnids. In: Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 1., pp.199-218.

Herberstein, M.E., Craig, C.L., Coddington, J.A. and Elgar, M.A. 2000. The Functional Significance of Silk Decorations of Orb-Web Spiders: A Critical Review of the Empirical Evidence. Biological Review, 75: 649-669.

Hormiga, G., Scharff, N. and Coddington, J.A. 2000. The Phylogenic Basis of Sexual Size Dimporphism in Orb Weaving Spiders (Araneae, Orbiculariae). Systematic Biology, 49: 435-462.

Griswold, C.E., Coddington, J.A., Platnick, N.I. and Forster, R.R. 1999. Towards a Phylogeny of Entelegyne Spiders (Araneae, Araneomorphae, Entelegynae). The Journal of Arachnology, 27: 53-63.

Heyer, W. R., Coddington, Jonathan A., Kress, W. John, Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro, Cole, Daniel, Erwin, Terry L., Meggers, Betty J., Pogue, Michael G., Thorington, Richard W., Vari, Richard P., Weitzman, Marilyn J. and Weitzman, Stanley H. 1999. Amazonian biotic data and conservation decisions. Ciência e Cultura Sao Paulo, 51(5-6): 372-385.

Griswold, C.E., Coddington, J.C., Hormiga, G. and Scharff, N. 1998. Phylogeny of the orb-web building spiders (Araneae, Orbiculariae: Deinopoidea, Araneoidea). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 123: 1-99.

Kress, W.J., Heyer, W.R., Acevedo-Rodriguez, P., Coddington, J.A., Cole, D., Erwin, T.L., Meggers, B.J., Pogue, M.G., Thorington, R.W., Jr., Vari, R.P., Weitzman, M.J. and Weitzman, S.H. 1998. Amazonian biodiversity: Assessing conservation priorities with taxonomic data. Biodiversity and Conservation, 7(12): 1577-1587.

Coddington, J.A., Hormiga, G. and Scharff, N. 1997. Giant female or dwarf male spiders?. Nature, 385(6618): 687-688.

Scharff, N. and Coddington, J.A. 1997. A phylogenetic analysis of the orb-weaving spider family Araneidae (Arachnida, Araneae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 120: 355-434.

Coddington, J.A. and Scharff, N. 1996. Problems with "Soft" Polytomies. Cladistics, 12: 139-145.

Coddington, J.A., Young, L.H. and Coyle, F.A. 1996. Estimating Spider Species Richness in a Southern Appalachian Cove Hardwood Forest. Journal of Arachnology, 24(2): 111-128.

Silva, Diana and Coddington, Jonathan A. 1996. Spiders of Pakitza (Madre de Dios, Perú): species richness and notes on community structure. In: Manu: The Biodiversity of Southeastern Peru. pp.253-311.

Bisby, F.A. and Coddington, J.A. 1995. Biodiversity from a taxonomic and evolutionary perspective. In: Global Biodiversity Assessment. pp.27-57.

Brooks, D.R., McLennan, D.A., Carpenter, J.M., Weller, S.G. and Coddington, J.A. 1995. Systematics, Ecology, and Behavior, Integrating Phylogenetic Patterns and Evolutionary Mechanisms. Bioscience, 45(10): 687-695.

Brooks, D.R., McLennan, D.A., Carpenter, J.M., Weller, S.G. and Coddington, J.A. 1995. Systematics, ecology and behavior: integrating phylogenetic patterns and evolutionary mechanisms. Bioscience, 45(10): 687-695.

Hormiga, G., Eberhard, W.G. and Coddington, J.A. 1995. Web-construction Behavior in Australian Phonognatha and Phylogeny of Nephiline and Tetragnathid Spiders (Araneae: Tetragnathidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, 43: 313-364.

Coddington, J.A. 1994. The Roles of Homology and Convergence in Studies of Adaptation. In: , Phylogenetics and Ecology., pp.53-78.

Coddington, J.A. and Scharff, N. 1994. Problems with Zero-Length Branches. Cladistics, 10: 415-423.

Colwell, R.K. and Coddington, J.A. 1994. Estimating Terrestrial Biodiversity Through Extrapolation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Series B), 345: 101-118.

Craig, C.L., Bernard, G.D. and Coddington, J.A. 1994. Evolutionary Shifts in the Spectral Properties of Spider Silks. Evolution, 48(2): 287-296.

Coddington, J.A. 1992. Review of: The Comparative Method in Evolutionary Biology, by P. H. Harvey and M. D. Pagel. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 7(2): 68-69.

Coddington, J.A. 1991. Spider Literature: A Computer Bibliography, ver. 3. [About 24,000 keyworded bibliographic citations (3.8 megabytes), available on diskette]. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, : 1-1307.

Coddington, J.A. 1991. Cladistics and Spider Classification: Araneomorph Phylogeny and the Monophyly of Orbweavers (Araneae: Araneomorphae, Orbiculariae). Acta Zoologica Fennica, 190: 75-87.

Coddington, J.A. and Levi, H.W. 1991. Systematics and Evolution of Spiders (Araneae). Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 22: 565-592.

Coddington, J.A., Griswold, C.E., Silva, D., Peñaranda, E. and Larcher, S.F. 1991. Designing and Testing Sampling Protocols to Estimate Biodiversity in Tropical Ecosystems. In: The Unity of Evolutionary Biology: Proceedings of the Fourth International Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary Biology, 2 vols., pp.44-60.

Coddington, J.A., Hammond, P., Olivieri, S., Robertson, J., Sokolov, V., Stork, N. and Taylor, E. 1991. Monitoring and Inventorying Biodiversity from Genes to Ecosystems. In: , From Genes to Ecosystems: a Research Agenda for Biodiversity., pp.83-109.

Platnick, N. I., Coddington, J.A., Forster, R. R. and Griswold, C. E. 1991. Spinneret Morphology and the Phylogeny of Haplogyne Spiders (Araneae, Araneomorphae). American Museum Novitates, 3016: 1-73.

Platnick, N.I., Griswold, C.E. and Coddington, J.A. 1991. On Missing Entries in Cladistic Analysis. Cladistics, 7(4): 337-343.

Coddington, J.A. 1990. Ontogeny and Homology in the Male Palpus of Orb Weaving Spiders and their Relatives, with Comments on Phylogeny (Araneoclada: Araneoidea, Deinopoidea). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 496: 1-52.

Coddington, J.A. 1990. Bridges Between Evolutionary Pattern and Process. Cladistics, 6(4): 379-386.

Coddington, J.A. 1990. Review of: Advances in Spider Taxonomy 1981-1987: a Supplement to Brignoli's A Catalog of the Araneae Described Between 1940 and 1981, by Norman I. Platnick, 1989. (Edited by P. Merrett). Manchester University Press. Journal of Arachnology, : 245-248.

Coddington, J.A., Horner, M. and Soderstrom, E.A. 1990. Mass Aggregations in Tropical Harvestment (Opiliones, Gragrellidae: Prionostemma sp.). Revue Arachnologique, 8(13): 213-219.

Coddington, J.A., Larcher, S.F. and Cokendolpher, J.C. 1990. The Systematic Status of Arachnida, Exclusive of Acari, in North America North of Mexico. In: Kosztarab, M. and Schaefer, C.W., Systematics of the North American insects and arachnids: Status and needs. Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University,(Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Information Series) pp.5-20.

Döbel, H.G., Denno, R.F. and Coddington, J.A. 1990. Spider (Araneae) Community Structure in an Intertidal Salt Marsh: Effects of Vegetation Structure and Tidal Flooding. Environmental Entomology, 19(5): 1356-1370.

Forster, R. R., Platnick, N. I. and Coddington, Jonathan A. 1990. A Proposal and Review of the Spider Family Synotaxidae (Araneae, Araneoidea), with notes on Theridiid Interrelationships. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 193: 1-116.

Yu, L.M. and Coddington, J.A. 1990. Ontogenetic Changes in the Spinning Fields of Nuctenea cornuta and Neoscona theisi (Araneae, Araneidae). Journal of Arachnology, 18: 331-345.

Coddington, J.A. 1989. Spinneret Silk Spigot Morphology: Evidence for the Monophyly of Orbweaving Spiders, Cyrtophorinae (Araneidae), and the Group Theridiidae plus Nesticidae. Journal of Arachnology, 17: 71-95.

Shear, W.A., Palmer, J.M., Coddington, J.A. and Bonamo, P.M. 1989. A Devonian Spinneret: Early Evidence of Spiders and Silk Use. Science, 246: 479-481.

Coddington, J.A. 1988. Graduate Training in Systematics at the Maryland Center for Systematic Entomology. American Arachnology, 37: 5

Coddington, J.A. 1988. Cladistic Tests of Adaptational Hypotheses. Cladistics, 4(1): 3-20.

Coddington, J.A. 1988. A Computerized Bibliography of Spider Literature Since 1940. American Arachnology, 37: 4

Sierwald, P. and Coddington, J.A. 1988. Functional Aspects of the Male Palpal Organs in Dolomedes tenebrosus, with notes on the Mating Behavior (Araneae, Pisauridae). Journal of Arachnology, 16(2): 262-265.

Coddington, J.A. 1987. The Sixth Annual Meeting of the Willi Hennig Society. Cladistics, 3(2): 178-185.

Coddington, J.A. 1987. Notes on Spider Natural History: the Webs and Habits of Araneus niveus and A. cingulatus (Araneae, Araneidae). Journal of Arachnology, 15(2): 268-270.

Coddington, J.A. 1987. The Shape of Things that Come: Review of Sexual Selection and Animal Genitalia. Cladistics, 3(2): 196-198.

Coddington, J.A. and Sobrevila, C. 1987. Web Manipulation and Two Stereotyped Attack Behaviors in the Ogre-faced Spider Deinopis spinosus Marx (Araneae, Deinopidae). Journal of Arachnology, 15(2): 213-225.

Coddington, J.A. 1986. The Monophyletic Origin of the Orb Web. In: Spiders: Webs, Behavior, and Evolution., pp.319-363.

Coddington, J.A. 1986. Orb Webs in "Non-orb Weaving" Ogre-faced Spiders (Araneae: Dinopidae): a Question of Genealogy. Cladistics, 2(1): 53-67.

Coddington, J.A. 1986. The Genera of the Spider Family Theridiosomatidae. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 422: 1-96.

Coddington, J.A. 1985. Review of: The Explanation of Organic Diversity: The Comparative Method and Adaptations for Mating. Cladistics, 1(1): 102-107.

Coddington, J.A. 1985. Field Trip Report. American Arachnology, 32: 8

Coddington, J.A. 1984. Current Research. American Arachnology, 29: 9-10.

Coddington, J.A. 1984. Systematics and Behavior of Orb Weaving Spiders. Dissertation Abstracts International B Sciences and Engineering, 45(2): 429

Coddington, J.A. 1983. A Temporary Slide-mount Allowing Precise Manipulation of Small Structures. In: Taxonomy, Biology and Ecology of the Araneae. pp.26

Coddington, J.A. 1983. The Weavers. Discover, 4: 48-53.

Coddington, J.A. 1983. Biology of Spiders by R. F. Foelix, and Spider Communication: Mechanisms and Ecological Significance, P. N. Witt & J. S. Rovner, (Eds.). Bioscience, : 208

Levi, H. W. and Coddington, J.A. 1983. Progress Report on the Phylogeny of the Orb-weaving Family Araneidae and the Superfamily Araneoidea (Arachnida: Araneae). Abhandlungen und Verhandlungen der naturwissen-schaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg, 26: 151-154.

Coddington, J.A. and Valerio, C.E. 1980. Observations on the Web and Behavior of Wendilgarda Spiders (Araneae: Theridiosomatidae). Psyche, 87 (1-2): 93-105.

Field, K.G. and Coddington, J.A. 1980. Rare Plant Species in Massachusetts. Rhodora, 82: 151-162.

Coddington, J.A. and Field, K.G. 1978. Rare and Endangered Vascular Plant Species in Massachusetts. Office of Endangered Species: U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service Newton Center, MA, MA: 1-52

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