Skip to main content.

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
{search_item}
phot of Lycaenid butterfly, Strymon giffordi _Strymon giffordi Nicolay & __Robbins

Bob Robbins, Curator of Lepidoptera

  • Phone:   202-633-1042
  • Fax:   202-786-3141
  • E-mail Address:   robbinsr@si.edu
  • USPS Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    PO Box 37012, MRC 105
    Washington, DC 20013-7012
  • Private Carrier Address:
    Smithsonian Institution
    National Museum of Natural History
    10th & Constitution NW
    Washington, DC 20560-0105
  • Education:
    AB: Brown University
    PhD: Tufts University
Bob Robbins, Curator of Lepidoptera

Research Interests: Systematics of Lycaenidae, evolutionary biology of butterflies, patterns of butterfly diversity.

Recent Blogs:

Caldas, A. & R. K. Robbins. 2012. Climate Change and Extinctions at the Edge (Defenders of Wildlife blog)

Caldas, A. & R. K. Robbins. 2012. Climate Change, Extinctions and Edges.  (Huffington Post, modified from the Defenders of Wildlife blog)

Selected Publications:

Sermeño, J. M., R. K. Robbins, G. Lamas, & J. A. Gámez. 2013. Cría en laboratorio de las "joyas vivientes" de El Salvador, Evenus regalis (Cramer) y Evenus batesii (Hewitson) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Bioma (San Salvador) 3: 4-9 and 44-48. Adobe Acrobat PDF icon

Faynel, C., R. C. Busby, and R. K. Robbins. 2012. Review of the species level taxonomy of the neotropical butterfly genus Oenomaus (Lycaenidae, Theclinae, Eumaeini). ZooKeys 222: 11–45 (2012). Adobe Acrobat PDF icon

Robbins, R. K. and Lamas, G. 2012. Comment on the proposed establishment of availability of Balintus d'Abrera, 2001, Gulliveria d'Abrera & Bálint, 2001, Salazaria d'Abrera & Bálint, 2001, Megathecla Robbins, 2002 and Gullicaena Bálint, 2002 (Insecta, Lepidoptera, LYCAENIDAE). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 69(1):60-61. Adobe Acrobat PDF icon

Robbins, R. K, Anderson, R. A. and Sullivan, J. B. 2012. The Nicaraguan hairstreak butterfly fauna (Theclinae: Eumaeini), its biogeography, and the history of Nicaraguan collectors. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 66(2): 61–75. Adobe Acrobat PDF icon

Robbins, R. K., Martins, A .R. P., Busby, R. C. and Duarte, M. 2012. Loss of male secondary sexual structures in allopatry in the Neotropical butterfly genus Arcas (Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini). Insect Systematics & Evolution, 43(1): 35-65. Adobe Acrobat PDF icon

Faynel, C., R. C. Busby, A. Moser, and R. K. Robbins. 2011. Species level taxonomy of the Neotropical hairstreak genus Porthecla (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini). Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. 47: 241-259. Adobe Acrobat PDF icon

Harris, B., G. Lamas and R. K. Robbins. 2010. Identity of Palaeonympha avinoffi Schaus, a satyrine butterfly from China (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica, 35(3):680-681. Adobe Acrobat PDF icon

Robbins, R. K. 2010. Four commonly confused hairstreaks (Lycaenidae, Theclinae, Eumaeini): three need names, one does not. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 64(1):1-13. Adobe Acrobat PDF icon

Duarte, M, and R. K. Robbins. 2010. Description and phylogenetic analysis of the Calycopidina (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Theclinae, Eumaeini): a subtribe of detritivores. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 54:45–65. Adobe Acrobat PDF icon

Robbins, R.K., A. Aiello, J. Feinstein, A. Berkov, A. Caldas, R. C. Busby and M. Duarte. 2010. A tale of two species: detritivory, parapatry, and sexual dimorphism in Lamprospilus collucia and L. orcidia (Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 42: 64-73. Adobe Acrobat PDF icon

Robbins, R.K., R. C. Busby and M. Duarte. 2010. Phylogeny and Taxonomy of the Neotropical Thepytus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclinae). Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny 68:35-52. Adobe Acrobat PDF icon

Gareca, Y., S. Reichle and R.K. Robbins. 2009. Preliminary checklist for Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) in Bolivia. Kempffiana 5:56-64. Adobe Acrobat PDF icon

Janzen, D.H. and 45 co-authors. 2009. Integration of DNA barcoding into an ongoing inventory of complex tropical biodiversity. Molecular Ecology Resources (Suppl. 1): 1-26. Adobe Acrobat PDF icon

Robbins, R.K. and R.C. Busby. 2009. Updated phylogeny, taxonomy, and diversification of Janthecla Robbins & Venables (Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini). J. Res. Lepid. 41: 5-13. pdf

Robbins, R.K. and G. Lamas. 2008. Balintus D’Abrera, 2001, Gulliveria D. Abrera & Balint, 2001, Salazaria D’Abrera & Balint, 2001, Megathecla Robbins, 2002 and Gullicaena Balint, 2002 (Insecta, Lepidoptera, LYCAENIDAE): proposed establishment of availability (Case 3458). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 65: 199-193. pdf

Robbins, R.K. and R.C. Busby. 2008. Phylogeny, taxonomy, and sympatry of Timaeta (Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini): an Andean montane forest endemic. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie, 151: 205-233.

Robbins, R. K. and G. Lamas. 2008. Nomenclature, variation, and the biological species concept in Lamasina (Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 25(1):116-127. pdf

Robbins, R. K. and G. Lamas. 2006. Stabilizing the Nomenclature of Fabrician Names of North American Hairstreaks (Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini). Journal of the Lepidopterists Society 60(2): 86 91. pdf

Robbins, R. K. and M. Duarte. 2006. Systematic placement of Lycaena cogina Schaus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Polyommatinae), a biogeographically disjunct new world species. Proceedings Entomological Society of Washington 108(1): 226-236. pdf

Duarte, M, R. K. Robbins and O. H H. Mielke. 2005. Immature stages of Calycopis caulonia (Hewitson, 1877) (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae, Theclinae, Eumaeini), with notes on rearing detritivorous hairstreaks on artificial
diet. Zootaxa 1063: 1-31. pdf

Nicolay, S. S. and R. K. Robbins. 2005. Five new dry-area South American Strymon species (Lycaenidae: Theclinae) and their biogeographic significance. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 38: 35-49. pdf

Robbins, R. K. & M. Duarte. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis of Cyanophrys Clench, a synopsis of its species, and the potentially threatened C. bertha (Jones) (Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini). Proceedings Entomological
Society of Washington
107: 398-416. pdf

Robbins, R. K. and M. Duarte. 2005. Two phylogenetically significant new Calycopis species (Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini). Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera 38: 27-34. pdf

Robbins, R. K. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships among the species of Panthiades Hübner (Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 107: 501-509. pdf

Hall, J. W., R. K. Robbins, and D. J. Harvey. 2004. Extinction and biogeography in the Caribbean: new evidence from a fossil riodinid butterfly in Dominican amber. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 271: 797-801. pdf

Robbins, R. K. 2004. Tribe Eumaeini. Pp. 118-137. In: Lamas, G., ed. (ed.). Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Checklist: Part 4A. Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville.

Robbins, R. K. & G. Lamas. 2004. Thecla azia Hewitson, 1873 (Insecta, Lepidoptera): proposed conservation of the specific name (Case 3282). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. 61(2): 98-99.

Robbins, R. K. and M. Duarte. 2004. Description of new butterfly genera. Lycaenidae, Eumaeini. Pp. 275-282. In: Lamas, G. (ed.). Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Checklist: Part 4A. Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea. Scientific
Publishers, Gainesville.

Robbins, R. K. 2004. Introduction to the checklist of Eumaeini (Lycaenidae). Pp. 24-30. In: Lamas, G. (ed.). Atlas of Neotropical Lepidoptera. Checklist: Part 4A. Hesperioidea - Papilionoidea. Scientific Publishers, Gainesville.

Caldas, A. and R. K. Robbins. 2003. Modified Pollard transects for assessing tropical butterfly abundance and diversity. Biological Conservation 110: 211-219. pdf

Robbins, R. K. 2002. Replacement Names in the Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclinae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 104: 820-821.

Robbins, R. K. and S. S. Nicolay. 2002. On Overview of Strymon Hubner (Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini). Journal of the Lepidoptera Society 55: 85-100. pdf

Robbins, R. K. and G. Lamas. 2001. Nomenclatural Changes in the Neotropical Eumaeini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclinae). Revista Brasileira de Zoologia19: 197-214. pdf

Robbins, R. K. 2000. The New World Hairstreak Genus Arawacus Kaye (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 102(1):162-169. pdf

Robbins, R. K. and Nicolay, S. S. 1998. Taxonomy and Nomenclature of Strymon istapa and S. columella (Lycaenidae: Theclinae: Eumaeini). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 52(3): 318-327. pdf

Robbins, R. K. and Nicolay, S. S. 1998. Taxonmomy of Strymon toussainti, S. andrewi, S. amonensis, and S. rhaptos (Lycaenidae: Theclinae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society 52(3): 328-334. pdf

Robbins, R. K. and Opler, P. A. 1997. Butterfly diversity and a preliminary comparison with with bird and mammal diversity. In: Wilson, D. E., Reaka-Kudla, M. L. and Wilson, E. O. (eds.). Biodiversity II, Understanding and Protecting Our Biological Resources. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, DC.

Lamas, G., Robbins, R. K., Harvey, D. J. 1996. Mariposas del alto Río Napo, Loreto, Perú (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea y Hesperioidea). Revista Peruana de Entomologia 39: 63-74.

Medina, M. C., Robbins, R. K. and Lamas, G. 1996. Vertical Stratification of Flight by Ithomiine Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) at Pakitza, Manu National Park, Peru. P. 679 pp. In: Wilson, D. E. and A. Sandoval
(eds.). Manu: The Biodiversity of Southeastern Peru. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Robbins, R. K., Lamas, G., Mielke, O. H. H., Harvey, D. J., Casagrande, M. 1996. Taxonomic composition and ecological structure of the species-rich butterfly community at Pakitza, Parque Nacional del Manu, Peru. Pp.
217-252. In: Wilson, D. E. and A. Sandoval (eds.). Manu: The Biodiversity of Southeastern Peru. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. pdf


Robbins, R.K. 1994. Naming Hairstreaks. American Butterflies, 2: 28-31.

Lamas, G., Mielke, O.H.H. and Robbins, R.K. 1993. The Ahrenholz technique for attracting tropical skippers (Hesperiidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 47(1): 80-82.

Robbins, R.K. 1993. Comparison of Butterfly Diversity in the Neotropical and Oriental Regions. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 46(4): 298-300.

Robbins, R.K. 1993. False Heads: the Real Tale. American Butterflies, 1: 19-22.

Robbins, R.K. 1993. Preface. In: Butterflies through binoculars, a field guide to butterflies in the Boston, New York, and Washington Region., pp.1

Robbins, R.K. 1993. The Butterfly Fauna of the Middlesex Fells Reservation. In: , in: Butterflies through binoculars, a field guide to butterflies in the Boston, New York, and Washington Region., pp.2-4.

Warren, A.D. and Robbins, R.K. 1993. A Natural Hybrid Between Callophrys (Callophrys) sheridanii and C. (Incisalia) augustinus (Lycaenidae). Journal of the Lepidopterist's Society, 47(3): 236-240.

Lamas, G., Robbins, R.K. and Harvey, D.J. 1991. A Preliminary Survey of the Butterfly Fauna of Pakitza, Parque Nacional del Manu, Peru, with an Estimate of its Species Richness. Publicaciones del Museo de Historia Natural Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, 40: 1-19. pdf

Robbins, R.K. 1991. Evolution, Comparative Morphology, and Identification of the Emaeine Butterfly Genus Rekoa Kay (Lycaenidae: Theclinae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology, 498: 1-64. pdf

Robbins, R.K. 1991. Cost and Evolution of a Facultative Mutualism Between Ants and Lycaenid Larvae (Lepidoptera). Oikos, 62: 363-369.

Robbins, R.K. and Venables, B.A.B. 1991. Synopsis of a new Neotropical hairstreak genus, Janthecla, and description of a new species. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 45(1): 11-33. pdf

Robbins, R.K. 1990. Systematic Implications of Butterfly Leg Structures that Clean the Antennae. Psyche, 96(3-4): 209-222. pdf

Robbins, R.K. 1990. The Mitoura spinetorum Complex in New Mexico and the Validity of M. millerorum (Lycaenidae: Theclinae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 44(2): 63-76. pdf

Robbins, R.K. 1988. Male Foretarsal Variation in Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, and the Systematic Placement of Styx infernalis (Lepidoptera). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 90: 356-368. pdf

Robbins, R.K. 1988. Comparative Morphology of the Butterfly Foreleg Coxa and Trochanter (Lepidoptera) and its Systematic Implications. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 90: 133-154. pdf

Robbins, R.K. and Hevel, G.F. 1988. Glassberg, Lehman, and Pellmyr Collections to the Smithsonian Institution. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 42(1): 31

Robbins, R.K. 1987. Logic and Phylogeny: a Critique of Scott's Phylogenies to the Butterflies and Macrolepidoptera. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 41: 214-216.

Robbins, R.K. 1987. Review of: A Revision of the Genus Hypochrysops C & R Felder, by D. P. A. Sands. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 41: 238

Robbins, R.K. 1986. Evolution and Identification of the New World Hairstreak Butterflies (Lycaenidae: Eumaeini): Eliot's Trichonis Section and Trichonis Hewitson. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 40(3): 138-157. pdf

Robbins, R.K. and Henson, P.M. 1986. Why Pieris rapae is a Better Name than Artogeia rapae (Pieridae). Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 40(2): 79-92.

Robbins, R.K. 1985. Independent Evolution of "False Head" Behavior in Riodinidae. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 39: 224-225. pdf

Chew, F.S. and Robbins, R.K. 1984. Egg-laying in Butterflies. In: The Biology of Butterflies. R.I.Vane-Wright & P.R.Ackery. (eds.). Academic press, London. Symposium of the Royal Entomological Society of London. No. 11: pp.65-79 + Lit. Cited. pdf

Robbins, R.K. 1984. [Review]. New Zealand Butterflies, Identification and Natural History, by G. W. Gibbs. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 86: 244

Robbins, R.K. 1982. How many butterfly species. News of the Lepidopterist's Society, 1982: 40-41. pdf

Robbins, R.K. and Aiello, A. 1982. Foodplant and oviposition records for Panamanian Lycaenidae and Riodinidae. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 36(2): 65-75. pdf

Robbins, R.K. 1981. The "False Head" Hypothesis: Predation and Wing Pattern Variation of Lycaenid Butterflies. American Naturalist, 118: 770-775. pdf

Robbins, R.K. and Small, G.B. 1981. Wind Dispersal of Panamanian Hairstreak Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) and its Evolutionary Significance. Biotropica, 13: 308-315.

Robbins, R.K. 1980. The Lycaenid "False Head" Hypothesis: Historical Review and Quantitative Analysis. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society, 34: 194-208.

Robbins, R.K. 1979. Behavioural ecology and evolution of hairstreak butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Dissertation Abstracts International B Sciences and Engineering, 39(10): 4720


[ TOP ]